Things you need to know before extending your house.
We reveal few things you must know about house extensions.
Make Your Conservatory Part of Your Home
You can integrate a conservatory into the existing house to make it an extension to an existing room, rather than a bolt on, but you have to be careful with the design.
The Building Regulations require most conservatories to be separated from the existing house by exterior quality doors. Such a doorway with a threshold can leave the new space feeling isolated from the rest of the house and unless the conservatory is large enough to work as a room in its own right (the minimum is around 3m x 4m) it can end up being an expensive, underused space.
Double doors can be left open to help make a conservatory feel like part of the house, but even double glazed conservatories lose heat quickly and so most people end up closing their conservatory off for the winter months to help keep their home warm and their fuel bills down.
With a bit of redesign to reduce the glazed area, the section of exterior wall separating it from the existing house can be completely removed. This turns the conservatory into a true extension, and by incorporating sections of plastered wall and insulated solid roof, a conservatory can be used to extend an existing room such as a dining room or kitchen.
To turn a conservatory into an extension you must provide your local building control department with calculations that show that the amount of glazing in the windows, doors and roof of the conservatory/extension, together with the amount of glazing in the windows, doors and any rooflights in the original house, do not exceed 25% of the floor area of the conservatory and all floors of the house added together.
New windows and doors in the conservatory/extension will need to meet the current U-values required by the Building Regulations.
Consider Adding Basement Space
If you have an existing cellar, you can convert it into living space without using up the volume allocated to you under permitted development rights. Creating basement windows and external access will not usually require planning permission either, although it is always worth checking your local authority’s policy on basements. All work must, however, comply with the Building Regulations laid out in the Approved Document – Basements for Dwellings 2000.
Converting existing cellar space to bring it up to habitable standards costs from £1,000-1,500/m² providing there is already enough headroom. Creating a new basement beneath an existing building to add extra space is also possible. The cost is £3,000-4,000/m². Due to the cost, it is usually only financially viable to retrospectively add a basement in high value areas such as Central London.
Remove Your Walls
You don’t need walls to define rooms. Creating larger, more open spaces will help to make a properly feel larger. The fewer walls you use, the more spacious and light a property will feel.
You can define separate rooms and functions by using all sorts of other features such as furniture, lighting, floor coverings, decoration, floor or ceiling levels, and informal room dividers such as kitchen island or peninsula units, fireplaces, open shelving, island walls or even the staircase.
Have You Really Thought Through Your Loft Conversion?
Before embarking on an expensive attic conversion think carefully about the cost relative to the amount of useful space that can be gained, and the impact on the existing accommodation. In order to comply with the Building Regulations to form an additional bedroom in the roof space, the floor may need strengthening and the roof will need to have at least 150mm of insulation, plus a 50mm clear air gap (unless you are able to replace the existing roofing felt with a breathable membrane).
The result of bringing the loft space up to habitable requirements is that the ceiling height will typically be lowered by 60-100mm and the floor level raised by at least 15-20mm. Both of these changes will reduce the amount of usable space with good headroom. If steel purlins or joists need to be added, too, this can further reduce the space.
If the usable space is limited, consider raising the roof height by rebuilding it, or even lowering the existing ceiling height below. Accessing a habitable loft conversion requires a permanent staircase and this will need landing space.
If you decide the cost of a full conversion cannot be justified because of space constraints, consider improving the loft space to create storage accessed by a fold-away loft ladder or space-saver staircase? This can be achieved at a significantly lower cost than a full conversion. Attic conversions cost from £600/m² for a simple conversion, up to £1,500/m² for more complicated work.
Minimum Ceiling Heights
Although the legal minimum ceiling height has now been removed from the Building Regulations, there is still a practical minimum height and this is especially worth thinking about in attic and cellar conversions. All rooms should normally have a floor to ceiling height of at least 2.1m throughout (standard ceiling height is 2.4m). In rooms with sloping ceilings, at least 50% of the floor area should normally have a floor to ceiling height of at least 2.1m.
Balance Your Accommodation
Although there are no legal requirements to provide more than one bathroom, it is practical to have a least one full bathroom on the same floor as the main bedrooms. For larger households it helps to have at least one en suite bathroom — ideally to the master bedroom.
If you are extending to add extra bedrooms, clearly creating the number of bedrooms needed for the household is the main priority, but this should, if at all possible, be balanced by an increase in the number of bathrooms. Future buyers will expect at least one bathroom and a shower room on a four or five bedroom house and without this the value will be constrained.
Minimum Room Sizes
It can be tempting to try and subdivide existing and new space into as many bedrooms as required, particularly if budget or the size of the extension permitted is restricted. However, there are minimum sizes beyond which rooms will not function.
When considering applications for conversions, most local authorities have recommended minimum room sizes which planning applications must conform to. However, the rules about sizes are more applicable to social housing and are usually relaxed for private accommodation.
In addition, rooms must always have external windows, with the exception of non-habitable rooms such as kitchens, bathrooms, dining rooms and studies.
Know the Building Regulations
Even if you do not need planning permission for your extension, because you are using permitted development rights, you must get building regulation approval.
The Building Regulations set out minimum requirements for structural integrity, fire safety, energy efficiency, damp proofing, ventilation and other key aspects that ensure a building is safe.
Most repair work is excluded from the Building Regulations, with the exceptions of replacement windows, underpinning and rewiring. However, apart from certain new buildings such as sheds, outbuildings and some conservatories, all new building work, including alterations, must comply with the Building Regulations.
Typical Examples of Work Needing Approval:
- Home extensions such as for a kitchen, bedroom, lounge, etc.
- Loft conversions. Internal structural alterations, such as the removal of a load-bearing wall.
- Installation of baths, showers, WCs which involve new drainage or waste plumbing.
- Installation of new heating appliances.
- New chimneys or flues.
- Altered openings for new windows.
You Can Start Within 48 Hours of Notifying Building Control
Once you have dealt with planning, if you are in a hurry to start building your extension, you can commence work immediately after giving the local authority building control department 48 hours’ notice. You are required to submit a ‘Building Notice’ and the required fee.
Generally the Building Notice method is more suitable for simple works where detailed drawings are not required, but it can be used for any project, with the exception of work to listed buildings.
For most extensions it is best to make a Full Plans application. This involves submitting detailed drawings, specifications, calculations and a location plan for inspection by the local authority, together with the application forms and appropriate fee.
Building control has to respond within five weeks unless you agree to give them an extension to two months. A Full Plans submission allows any irregularities to be resolved before work commences.
With a Building Notice, the building control officers can ask for proof of compliance at any stage, so it is essential to make sure they make all necessary inspections and provide any structural calculations when requested. When the project is completed and inspected by the local authority, a completion certificate will be issued which will prove useful if the property is ever to be sold on. Application fees are set individually by each local authority.
Permitted Development is Not Always Straightforward
Under the new rules, the ‘original’ (as it stood in or prior to 1948) rear wall of a detached home can be extended by up to 4m in depth with a single storey extension; this is reduced to 3m if you live in a semi or terrace. If your proposed new extension will be within 3m of a boundary, then the eaves height is limited to 2m under PD.
If you hope to build a two storey extension (no higher than the house), this can project up to 3m from the original rear wall, so long as it is at least 7m from the rear boundary. It’s also important to note that no extension can project beyond or be added to what is deemed to be the front of the house or an elevation which affronts the highway. A side extension cannot make up more than half your house’s width.
Furthermore, with the exception of conservatories, new extensions must be built of materials ‘similar in appearance’ and with the same roof pitch as the main house.
Know the Party Wall Act
Your neighbours cannot stop you from building up to, or even on, the boundary between your properties, even if it requires access onto their land (providing you have planning permission to do so, and there are no restrictive covenants).
The Party Wall Act etc. 1996 allows you to carry out work on, or up to, your neighbours’ land and buildings, formalising the arrangements while also protecting everyone’s interests. This is not a matter covered by planning or building control.
If your extension involves building or digging foundations within 3m of the boundary, party wall or party wall structure, or digging foundations within 6m of a boundary, the work will require you to comply with the Party Wall Act. In these cases you may need a surveyor to act on your behalf. The act does not apply in Scotland.